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In a normal adult body there are 4, to 10, average 7, WBCs per microliter of blood. When the number of WBCs in your blood increases, this is a sign of an infection somewhere in your body.

Most WBCs neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes are formed in the bone marrow. Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are also called granulocytes because they have granules in their cells that contain digestive enzymes.

Basophils have purple granules, eosinophils have orange-red granules and neutrophils have a faint blue-pink color.

When a granulocyte is released into the blood, it stays there for an average of four to eight hours and then goes into the tissues of the body, where it lasts for an average of four to five days.

During a severe infection, these times are often shorter. Neutrophils are the one of the body's main defenses against bacteria.

They kill bacteria by actually ingesting them this is called phagocytosis. Neutrophils can phagocytize five to 20 bacteria in their lifetime.

Neutrophils have a multi-lobed, segmented or polymorphonuclear nucleus and so are also called PMNs, polys or segs.

Bands are immature neutrophils that are seen in the blood. When a bacterial infection is present, an increase of neutrophils and bands are seen.

Eosinophils kill parasites and have a role in allergic reactions. Basophils are not well understood, but they function in allergic reactions.

They release histamine which causes blood vessels to leak and attracts WBCs and heparin which prevents clotting in the infected area so that the WBCs can reach the bacteria.

Monocytes enter the tissue, where they become larger and turn into macrophages. There they can phagocytize bacteria up to in their lifetime throughout the body.

These cells also destroy old, damaged and dead cells in the body. Macrophages are found in the liver, spleen, lungs, lymph nodes, skin and intestine.

The system of macrophages scattered throughout the body is called the reticuloendothelial system. Monocytes stay in the blood for an average of 10 to 20 hours and then go into the tissues, where they become tissue macrophages and can live for months to years.

Neutrophils and monocytes use several mechanisms to get to and kill invading organisms. They can squeeze through openings in blood vessels by a process called diapedesis.

They move around using ameboid motion. They are attracted to certain chemicals produced by the immune system or by bacteria and migrate toward areas of higher concentrations of these chemicals.

This is called chemotaxis. They kill bacteria by a process called phagocytosis , in which they completely surround the bacteria and digest them with digestive enzymes.

Lymphocytes are complex cells that direct the body's immune system. T lymphocytes start in the bone marrow from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, then travel to and mature in the thymus gland.

The thymus is located in the chest between the heart and sternum breastbone. B lymphocytes mature in the bone marrow.

T lymphocytes T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. B lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity antibody production.

Seventy-five percent of lymphocytes are T cells. Lymphocytes are different from the other WBCs because they can recognize and have a memory of invading bacteria and viruses.

Lymphocytes continually pass back and forth between lymph tissue, lymph fluid and blood. When they are present in the blood, they stay for several hours.

Lymphocytes can live for weeks, months or years. B cells become plasma cells when exposed to an invading organism or when activated by helper T cells.

B cells produce large numbers of antibodies also called immunoglobulins or gamma globulins. These are Y-shaped molecules that have a variable segment that is a binding site for only one specific antigen.

These bind to antigens, which causes them to clump, be neutralized or break open. They also activate the complement system.

The complement system is a series of enzymes that help or complement antibodies and other components of the immune system to destroy the invading antigen by attracting and activating neutrophils and macrophages, neutralizing viruses and causing invading organisms to break open.

Memory B cells also remain for prolonged periods, and if the same antigen is encountered it causes a more rapid response in producing antibodies.

Platelets thrombocytes help blood to clot by forming something called a platelet plug. The other way that blood clots is through coagulation factors.

Platelets also help to promote other blood clotting mechanisms. There are approximately , to , platelets in each microliter of blood average is , Platelets are formed in the bone marrow from very large cells called megakaryocytes , which break up into fragments -- these cellular fragments are platelets.

They do not have a nucleus and do not reproduce. Instead, megakaryocytes produce more platelets when necessary. Platelets generally last for an average of 10 days.

Plasma is a clear, yellowish fluid the color of straw. Plasma can sometimes appear milky after a very fatty meal or when people have a high level of lipids in their blood.

Plasma is percent water. The other 10 percent dissolved in plasma is essential for life. These dissolved substances are circulated throughout the body and diffuse into tissues and cells where they are needed.

They diffuse from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration. The greater the difference in concentration, the greater the amount of material that diffuses.

Waste materials flow in the opposite direction, from where they are created in the cells into the bloodstream, where they are removed either in the kidneys or lungs.

Hydrostatic pressure blood pressure pushes fluid out of blood vessels. Balancing this is something called oncotic pressure caused by proteins dissolved in blood , which tends to keep fluid inside the blood vessels.

Proteins make up a large part of the 10 percent of material dissolved in plasma and are responsible for oncotic pressure.

Protein molecules are much larger than water molecules and tend to stay in blood vessels. They have more difficulty fitting through the pores in capillaries, and therefore have a higher concentration in blood vessels.

Proteins tend to attract water to keep their relative concentration in blood vessels more in line with fluid outside the blood vessels.

This is one of the ways the body maintains a constant volume of blood. Plasma contains 6. The main proteins in plasma are albumin 60 percent , globulins alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and gamma globulins immunoglobulins , and clotting proteins especially fibrinogen.

These proteins function to maintain oncotic pressure especially albumin and transport substances such as lipids, hormones, medications, vitamins, and other nutrients.

These proteins are also part of the immune system immunoglobulins , help blood to clot clotting factors , maintain pH balance, and are enzymes involved in chemical reactions throughout the body.

Electrolytes are another large category of substances dissolved in plasma. They include:. These chemicals are absolutely essential in many bodily functions including fluid balance, nerve conduction, muscle contraction including the heart , blood clotting and pH balance.

Other materials dissolved in plasma are carbohydrates glucose , cholesterol, hormones and vitamins. Cholesterol is normally transported attached to lipoproteins such as low-density lipoproteins LDLs and high-density lipoproteins HDLs.

For more information on cholesterol, read How Cholesterol Works. When plasma is allowed to clot, the fluid left behind is called serum. When blood is collected from a patient it is allowed to clot in a test tube, where the cells and clotting factors fall to the bottom and the serum is left on top.

Serum is tested for all the numerous items discussed above to determine if any abnormalities exist. There are four major blood types : A, B, AB, and 0.

The blood types are determined by proteins called antigens also called agglutinogens on the surface of the RBC.

There are two antigens, A and B. When B antigen is present, you have type B blood. When both A and B antigens are present, you have type AB blood.

When neither are present, you have type O blood. When an antigen is present on the RBC, then the opposite antibody also called agglutinin is present in the plasma.

For instance, type A blood has anti-type-B antibodies. Type B blood has anti-type-A antibodies. Type AB blood has no antibodies in the plasma, and type O blood has both anti-type-A and anti-type-B antibodies in the plasma.

These antibodies are not present at birth but are formed spontaneously during infancy and last throughout life. In addition to the ABO blood group system, there is an Rh blood group system.

There are many Rh antigens that can be present on the surface of the RBC. The D antigen is the most common Rh antigen. If the D antigen is missing, then the blood is Rh-.

Unlike in the ABO system, the corresponding antibody to the Rh antigen does not develop spontaneously but only when the Rh- person is exposed to Rh antigen by blood transfusion or during pregnancy.

A unit of blood is 1 pint milliliters and is mixed with chemicals CPD to prevent clotting. Each year, approximately 12 million to 14 million units of blood are donated in the United States.

Generally, a blood donor must be at least 17 years old, be healthy, and weigh over pounds. Prior to donating blood, the donor is given an information pamphlet to read.

A health history is taken to ensure that the donor has not been exposed to diseases that can be transmitted by blood, and to determine if donating blood is safe for that person's own health.

The donor's temperature, pulse, blood pressure and weight are obtained. A few drops of blood are obtained to make sure the donor is not anemic.

It usually takes less than 10 minutes for the blood to be removed once the needle has been placed.

Sterile, single-use equipment is used so there is no danger of infection to the donor. Donors should drink extra fluids and avoid exercise that day.

Blood can be donated every eight weeks. Autologous blood donation is the donation of blood for one's own use, usually prior to surgery. Apheresis is the procedure in which only a specific component of a donor's blood is removed usually platelets, plasma or leukocytes.

In this way, more of that specific component can be removed than can be derived from one unit of blood. Each unit of blood can be separated into several components so that each component can be given to someone with a need for that specific one.

Therefore, a single unit of blood can help many people. Moreover, as aorta branches into smaller arteries, their elasticity goes on decreasing and their compliance goes on increasing.

Arteries branch into small passages called arterioles and then into the capillaries. Capillaries merge into venules , which merge into veins.

The venous system feeds into the two major veins: the superior vena cava — which mainly drains tissues above the heart — and the inferior vena cava — which mainly drains tissues below the heart.

These two large veins empty into the right atrium of the heart. The general rule is that arteries from the heart branch out into capillaries, which collect into veins leading back to the heart.

Portal veins are a slight exception to this. In humans the only significant example is the hepatic portal vein which combines from capillaries around the gastrointestinal tract where the blood absorbs the various products of digestion; rather than leading directly back to the heart, the hepatic portal vein branches into a second capillary system in the liver.

The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the human heart there is one atrium and one ventricle for each circulation, and with both a systemic and a pulmonary circulation there are four chambers in total: left atrium , left ventricle , right atrium and right ventricle.

The right atrium is the upper chamber of the right side of the heart. The blood that is returned to the right atrium is deoxygenated poor in oxygen and passed into the right ventricle to be pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs for re-oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide.

The left atrium receives newly oxygenated blood from the lungs as well as the pulmonary vein which is passed into the strong left ventricle to be pumped through the aorta to the different organs of the body.

The heart itself is supplied with oxygen and nutrients through a small "loop" of the systemic circulation and derives very little from the blood contained within the four chambers.

The coronary circulation system provides a blood supply to the heart muscle itself. The coronary circulation begins near the origin of the aorta by two coronary arteries : the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery.

After nourishing the heart muscle, blood returns through the coronary veins into the coronary sinus and from this one into the right atrium.

Back flow of blood through its opening during atrial systole is prevented by Thebesian valve. The smallest cardiac veins drain directly into the heart chambers.

The circulatory system of the lungs is the portion of the cardiovascular system in which oxygen -depleted blood is pumped away from the heart, via the pulmonary artery , to the lungs and returned, oxygenated, to the heart via the pulmonary vein.

Oxygen deprived blood from the superior and inferior vena cava enters the right atrium of the heart and flows through the tricuspid valve right atrioventricular valve into the right ventricle, from which it is then pumped through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary artery to the lungs.

Gas exchange occurs in the lungs, whereby CO 2 is released from the blood, and oxygen is absorbed. The pulmonary vein returns the now oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium.

A separate system known as the bronchial circulation supplies blood to the tissue of the larger airways of the lung. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which transports oxygenated blood away from the heart through the aorta from the left ventricle where the blood has been previously deposited from pulmonary circulation, to the rest of the body, and returns oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart.

The brain has a dual blood supply that comes from arteries at its front and back. These are called the "anterior" and "posterior" circulation respectively.

The anterior circulation arises from the internal carotid arteries and supplies the front of the brain. The posterior circulation arises from the vertebral arteries , and supplies the back of the brain and brainstem.

The circulation from the front and the back join together anastomise at the Circle of Willis. It branches from the abdominal aorta and returns blood to the ascending vena cava.

It is the blood supply to the kidneys , and contains many specialized blood vessels. The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system.

It is a network of lymphatic vessels and lymph capillaries , lymph nodes and organs , and lymphatic tissues and circulating lymph. One of its major functions is to carry the lymph, draining and returning interstitial fluid back towards the heart for return to the cardiovascular system, by emptying into the lymphatic ducts.

Its other main function is in the adaptive immune system. The development of the circulatory system starts with vasculogenesis in the embryo.

The human arterial and venous systems develop from different areas in the embryo. The arterial system develops mainly from the aortic arches , six pairs of arches which develop on the upper part of the embryo.

Fetal circulation begins within the 8th week of development. Fetal circulation does not include the lungs, which are bypassed via the truncus arteriosus.

Before birth the fetus obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother through the placenta and the umbilical cord.

The human arterial system originates from the aortic arches and from the dorsal aortae starting from week 4 of embryonic life.

The first and second aortic arches regress and forms only the maxillary arteries and stapedial arteries respectively.

The arterial system itself arises from aortic arches 3, 4 and 6 aortic arch 5 completely regresses.

The dorsal aortae, present on the dorsal side of the embryo, are initially present on both sides of the embryo. They later fuse to form the basis for the aorta itself.

Approximately thirty smaller arteries branch from this at the back and sides. These branches form the intercostal arteries , arteries of the arms and legs, lumbar arteries and the lateral sacral arteries.

Branches to the sides of the aorta will form the definitive renal , suprarenal and gonadal arteries. Finally, branches at the front of the aorta consist of the vitelline arteries and umbilical arteries.

The vitelline arteries form the celiac , superior and inferior mesenteric arteries of the gastrointestinal tract. After birth, the umbilical arteries will form the internal iliac arteries.

The human venous system develops mainly from the vitelline veins , the umbilical veins and the cardinal veins , all of which empty into the sinus venosus.

About About 1. The hemoglobin molecule is the primary transporter of oxygen in mammals and many other species. These include a number of cardiovascular diseases , affecting the cardiovascular system, and lymphatic diseases affecting the lymphatic system.

Diseases affecting the cardiovascular system are called cardiovascular disease. Many of these diseases are called " lifestyle diseases " because they develop over time and are related to a person's exercise habits, diet, whether they smoke, and other lifestyle choices a person makes.

Atherosclerosis is the precursor to many of these diseases. It is where small atheromatous plaques build up in the walls of medium and large arteries.

This may eventually grow or rupture to occlude the arteries. It is also a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes , which are diseases that are characterised by a sudden deficit of oxygenated blood to the heart tissue.

Atherosclerosis is also associated with problems such as aneurysm formation or splitting "dissection" of arteries. Another major cardiovascular disease involves the creation of a clot, called a "thrombus".

These can originate in veins or arteries. Deep venous thrombosis , which mostly occurs in the legs, is one cause of clots in the veins of the legs, particularly when a person has been stationary for a long time.

These clots may embolise , meaning travel to another location in the body. The results of this may include pulmonary embolus , transient ischaemic attacks , or stroke.

Cardiovascular diseases may also be congenital in nature, such as heart defects or persistent fetal circulation , where the circulatory changes that are supposed to happen after birth do not.

Not all congenital changes to the circulatory system are associated with diseases, a large number are anatomical variations.

The function and health of the circulatory system and its parts are measured in a variety of manual and automated ways. These include simple methods such as those that are part of the cardiovascular examination , including the taking of a person's pulse as an indicator of a person's heart rate , the taking of blood pressure through a sphygmomanometer or the use of a stethoscope to listen to the heart for murmurs which may indicate problems with the heart's valves.

An electrocardiogram can also be used to evaluate the way in which electricity is conducted through the heart. Other more invasive means can also be used.

A cannula or catheter inserted into an artery may be used to measure pulse pressure or pulmonary wedge pressures.

Angiography, which involves injecting a dye into an artery to visualise an arterial tree, can be used in the heart coronary angiography or brain.

At the same time as the arteries are visualised, blockages or narrowings may be fixed through the insertion of stents , and active bleeds may be managed by the insertion of coils.

For evaluation of the blood supply to the lungs a CT pulmonary angiogram may be used. Vascular ultrasonography include for example:.

In Ancient Greece, the heart was thought to be the source of innate heat for the body. The circulatory system as we know it was discovered by William Harvey.

The blood vascular system first appeared probably in an ancestor of the triploblasts over million years ago, overcoming the time-distance constraints of diffusion, while endothelium evolved in an ancestral vertebrate some — million years ago.

In arthropods , the open circulatory system is a system in which a fluid in a cavity called the hemocoel bathes the organs directly with oxygen and nutrients, with there being no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid ; this combined fluid is called hemolymph or haemolymph.

When the heart relaxes, blood is drawn back toward the heart through open-ended pores ostia. Hemolymph fills all of the interior hemocoel of the body and surrounds all cells.

Hemolymph is composed of water , inorganic salts mostly sodium , chloride , potassium , magnesium , and calcium , and organic compounds mostly carbohydrates , proteins , and lipids.

The primary oxygen transporter molecule is hemocyanin. There are free-floating cells, the hemocytes , within the hemolymph. They play a role in the arthropod immune system.

The circulatory systems of all vertebrates , as well as of annelids for example, earthworms and cephalopods squids , octopuses and relatives are closed , just as in humans.

Still, the systems of fish , amphibians , reptiles , and birds show various stages of the evolution of the circulatory system. In fish, the system has only one circuit, with the blood being pumped through the capillaries of the gills and on to the capillaries of the body tissues.

This is known as single cycle circulation. The heart of fish is, therefore, only a single pump consisting of two chambers.

In amphibians and most reptiles, a double circulatory system is used, but the heart is not always completely separated into two pumps. Amphibians have a three-chambered heart.

In reptiles, the ventricular septum of the heart is incomplete and the pulmonary artery is equipped with a sphincter muscle. This allows a second possible route of blood flow.

Instead of blood flowing through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, the sphincter may be contracted to divert this blood flow through the incomplete ventricular septum into the left ventricle and out through the aorta.

This means the blood flows from the capillaries to the heart and back to the capillaries instead of to the lungs. This process is useful to ectothermic cold-blooded animals in the regulation of their body temperature.

Birds, mammals, and crocodilians show complete separation of the heart into two pumps, for a total of four heart chambers; it is thought that the four-chambered heart of birds and crocodilians evolved independently from that of mammals.

Circulatory systems are absent in some animals, including flatworms. Their body cavity has no lining or enclosed fluid. Instead a muscular pharynx leads to an extensively branched digestive system that facilitates direct diffusion of nutrients to all cells.

The flatworm's dorso-ventrally flattened body shape also restricts the distance of any cell from the digestive system or the exterior of the organism.

Oxygen can diffuse from the surrounding water into the cells, and carbon dioxide can diffuse out. Consequently, every cell is able to obtain nutrients, water and oxygen without the need of a transport system.

Some animals, such as jellyfish , have more extensive branching from their gastrovascular cavity which functions as both a place of digestion and a form of circulation , this branching allows for bodily fluids to reach the outer layers, since the digestion begins in the inner layers.

The earliest known writings on the circulatory system are found in the Ebers Papyrus 16th century BCE , an ancient Egyptian medical papyrus containing over prescriptions and remedies, both physical and spiritual.

In the papyrus , it acknowledges the connection of the heart to the arteries. The Egyptians thought air came in through the mouth and into the lungs and heart.

From the heart, the air travelled to every member through the arteries. Although this concept of the circulatory system is only partially correct, it represents one of the earliest accounts of scientific thought.

In the 6th century BCE, the knowledge of circulation of vital fluids through the body was known to the Ayurvedic physician Sushruta in ancient India.

However their function was not properly understood then. Because blood pools in the veins after death, arteries look empty.

Ancient anatomists assumed they were filled with air and that they were for transport of air. The Greek physician , Herophilus , distinguished veins from arteries but thought that the pulse was a property of arteries themselves.

Greek anatomist Erasistratus observed that arteries that were cut during life bleed. He ascribed the fact to the phenomenon that air escaping from an artery is replaced with blood that entered by very small vessels between veins and arteries.

Thus he apparently postulated capillaries but with reversed flow of blood. In 2nd century AD Rome , the Greek physician Galen knew that blood vessels carried blood and identified venous dark red and arterial brighter and thinner blood, each with distinct and separate functions.

Growth and energy were derived from venous blood created in the liver from chyle, while arterial blood gave vitality by containing pneuma air and originated in the heart.

Blood flowed from both creating organs to all parts of the body where it was consumed and there was no return of blood to the heart or liver.

The heart did not pump blood around, the heart's motion sucked blood in during diastole and the blood moved by the pulsation of the arteries themselves.

Galen believed that the arterial blood was created by venous blood passing from the left ventricle to the right by passing through 'pores' in the interventricular septum, air passed from the lungs via the pulmonary artery to the left side of the heart.

As the arterial blood was created 'sooty' vapors were created and passed to the lungs also via the pulmonary artery to be exhaled. In , The Canon of Medicine by the Persian physician , Avicenna , "erroneously accepted the Greek notion regarding the existence of a hole in the ventricular septum by which the blood traveled between the ventricles.

In , the Arabian physician , Ibn al-Nafis , became the first person to accurately describe the process of pulmonary circulation , for which he is sometimes considered the father of circulatory physiology.

The thick septum of the heart is not perforated and does not have visible pores as some people thought or invisible pores as Galen thought.

The blood from the right chamber must flow through the vena arteriosa pulmonary artery to the lungs, spread through its substances, be mingled there with air, pass through the arteria venosa pulmonary vein to reach the left chamber of the heart and there form the vital spirit In addition, Ibn al-Nafis had an insight into what would become a larger theory of the capillary circulation.

He stated that "there must be small communications or pores manafidh in Arabic between the pulmonary artery and vein," a prediction that preceded the discovery of the capillary system by more than years.

Michael Servetus was the first European to describe the function of pulmonary circulation, although his achievement was not widely recognized at the time, for a few reasons.

He firstly described it in the "Manuscript of Paris" [24] [25] near , but this work was never published. And later he published this description, but in a theological treatise, Christianismi Restitutio , not in a book on medicine.

Only three copies of the book survived but these remained hidden for decades, the rest were burned shortly after its publication in because of persecution of Servetus by religious authorities.

Better known discovery of pulmonary circulation was by Vesalius 's successor at Padua , Realdo Colombo , in Finally, the English physician William Harvey , a pupil of Hieronymus Fabricius who had earlier described the valves of the veins without recognizing their function , performed a sequence of experiments and published his Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus in , which "demonstrated that there had to be a direct connection between the venous and arterial systems throughout the body, and not just the lungs.

Most importantly, he argued that the beat of the heart produced a continuous circulation of blood through minute connections at the extremities of the body.

This is a conceptual leap that was quite different from Ibn al-Nafis' refinement of the anatomy and bloodflow in the heart and lungs. However, Harvey was not able to identify the capillary system connecting arteries and veins; these were later discovered by Marcello Malpighi in Richards were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.

In the s, Diana McSherry developed computer-based systems to create images of the circulatory system and heart without the need for surgery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Bloodstream. This article is about the animal circulatory system. For plants, see Vascular tissue.

Several terms redirect here. For the song by Ed Sheeran, see Bloodstream song. For the album by Youves, see Cardio-Vascular.

Organ system for circulating blood in animals. The human circulatory system simplified. Red indicates oxygenated blood carried in arteries.

Blue indicates deoxygenated blood carried in veins. Capillaries , which join the arteries and veins, and the lymphatic vessels are not shown.

Depiction of the heart, major veins and arteries constructed from body scans. See also: Arterial tree.

Main article: Vein. Main article: Portal vein. Main article: Heart. Main article: Coronary circulation. Main article: Pulmonary circulation.

Main article: Cerebral circulation. Main article: Lymphatic system. Main article: Fetal circulation. Main article: Heart development. Main article: Aortic arches.

Main article: Cardiovascular disease. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. March See also: Hemolymph.

Medicine portal. Cancer Research UK. Retrieved April 13, PubMed Health. Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Cengage Learning.

Amirsys, Inc. Archived from the original on Guyton Textbook of Medical Physiology 10 ed.

Blood Work Stream Vascular remodelling in the embryo. This article is about the animal circulatory system. He firstly described it in the "Manuscript of Paris" [24] [25] nearLöw Video this work was never published. Many of these Gepflegt are called The Foreigner (2019) lifestyle diseases " because they develop over time and are related to a person's exercise habits, diet, whether they smoke, and other lifestyle choices a person makes. The hemoglobin molecule is the primary transporter of oxygen in mammals and Filmes Online 2019 other species. Library resources about Circulatory system. Atrial flutter Ventricular flutter Atrial fibrillation Familial Ventricular fibrillation. Atrioventricular Primary interventricular foramen Endocardial cushions Septum intermedium Atrioventricular canal Atrial Septum primum Foramen secundum Primary interatrial foramen Septum secundum Foramen ovale. Therefore, someone with The Tick Season 2 O- blood is called a universal donor.

When neither are present, you have type O blood. When an antigen is present on the RBC, then the opposite antibody also called agglutinin is present in the plasma.

For instance, type A blood has anti-type-B antibodies. Type B blood has anti-type-A antibodies. Type AB blood has no antibodies in the plasma, and type O blood has both anti-type-A and anti-type-B antibodies in the plasma.

These antibodies are not present at birth but are formed spontaneously during infancy and last throughout life.

In addition to the ABO blood group system, there is an Rh blood group system. There are many Rh antigens that can be present on the surface of the RBC.

The D antigen is the most common Rh antigen. If the D antigen is missing, then the blood is Rh-. Unlike in the ABO system, the corresponding antibody to the Rh antigen does not develop spontaneously but only when the Rh- person is exposed to Rh antigen by blood transfusion or during pregnancy.

A unit of blood is 1 pint milliliters and is mixed with chemicals CPD to prevent clotting. Each year, approximately 12 million to 14 million units of blood are donated in the United States.

Generally, a blood donor must be at least 17 years old, be healthy, and weigh over pounds. Prior to donating blood, the donor is given an information pamphlet to read.

A health history is taken to ensure that the donor has not been exposed to diseases that can be transmitted by blood, and to determine if donating blood is safe for that person's own health.

The donor's temperature, pulse, blood pressure and weight are obtained. A few drops of blood are obtained to make sure the donor is not anemic. It usually takes less than 10 minutes for the blood to be removed once the needle has been placed.

Sterile, single-use equipment is used so there is no danger of infection to the donor. Donors should drink extra fluids and avoid exercise that day.

Blood can be donated every eight weeks. Autologous blood donation is the donation of blood for one's own use, usually prior to surgery.

Apheresis is the procedure in which only a specific component of a donor's blood is removed usually platelets, plasma or leukocytes. In this way, more of that specific component can be removed than can be derived from one unit of blood.

Each unit of blood can be separated into several components so that each component can be given to someone with a need for that specific one.

Therefore, a single unit of blood can help many people. These components include:. Plasma fresh frozen plasma , once thawed, is transfused to treat bleeding disorders when many clotting factors are missing.

This occurs in liver failure, when too much of a blood thinner called Coumadin has been given, or when severe bleeding and massive transfusions result in low levels of clotting factors.

Platelets are transfused in people with low platelet count thrombocytopenia or abnormally functioning platelets. Each unit of platelets raises the platelet count by approximately 5, platelets per microliter of blood.

Albumin makes up 60 percent of the protein in plasma, is produced in the liver and is used when blood volume needs to be increased and fluids have not worked, as in cases of severe bleeding, liver failure and severe burns.

Immunoglobulins are given to persons who have been exposed to a certain disease such as rabies , tetanus or hepatitis to help prevent that disease.

Factor IX concentrate is used in hemophilia B "Christmas disease" , which is caused by a deficiency of clotting factor IX.

If any of these tests are positive, the blood is discarded. As of , the risk of getting HIV from a single blood transfusion was 1 in , units of blood, the risk of developing Hepatitis B was 1 in 66, units and the risk of getting Hepatitis C was 1 in , units.

However, newer testing may decrease the risk of Hepatitis C to between 1 in , and 1 in 1,, When blood is transfused into a patient, the blood type must be determined so that a transfusion reaction does not occur.

In other words, if donor blood of type A contains A antigens is given to someone with type B blood they have anti-type A antibodies in their blood , then a transfusion reaction will occur.

The opposite does not occur. It is unusual for the antibodies in the plasma of the donated blood to react to the antigens on the recipients RBCs because very little plasma is transfused and it gets diluted to a level too low to cause a reaction.

When a transfusion reaction occurs, an antibody attaches to antigens on several RBCs. This causes them to clump together and plug up blood vessels. Then they are destroyed by the body called hemolysis , releasing hemoglobin from the RBCs into the blood.

Hemoglobin is broken down into bilirubin, which can cause jaundice. These events occur in hemolytic disease of the newborn mentioned previously.

Therefore, someone with type O- blood is called a universal donor. Someone with type AB blood is called a universal recipient because they have no antibodies that could react with donated blood.

Red Blood Cells. Photo courtesy Garrigan. Net Microscopic image of red blood cells. White Blood Cells. Here are the six main types of WBCs and the average percentage of each type in the blood: Neutrophils - 58 percent Eosinophils - 2 percent Basophils - 1 percent Bands - 3 percent Monocytes - 4 percent Lymphocytes - 4 percent Most WBCs neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes are formed in the bone marrow.

In the next section, we'll take a closer look at lymphocytes and platelets. Lymphocytes and Platelets. There are many types of T cells that have specific functions, including: Helper T cells - Helper T cells have proteins on their cell membranes called CD4.

Helper T cells direct the rest of the immune system by releasing cytokines. Cytokines stimulate B cells to form plasma cells, which form antibodies, stimulate the production of cytotoxic T cells and suppressor T cells and activate macrophages.

Helper T cells are the cells the AIDS virus attacks -- you can imagine that destroying the cells that direct the immune system has a devastating effect.

Cytotoxic T cells - Cytotoxic T cells release chemicals that break open and kill invading organisms. Memory T cells - Memory T cells remain afterwards to help the immune system respond more quickly if the same organism is encountered again.

Suppressor T cells - Suppressor T cells suppress the immune response so that it does not get out of control and destroy normal cells once the immune response is no longer needed.

Platelets contain many chemicals that assist clotting. These include: Actin and myosin, to help them contract Chemicals that help the coagulation process to begin Chemicals that attract other platelets Chemicals that stimulate blood vessel repair Chemicals that stabilize a blood clot Advertisement.

Blood Types. Blood Type Distribution. According to the American Association of Blood Banking , these are the percentages of different blood types in the U.

Donating Blood. Red Cross blood supplies sent to the Gulf during the Gulf War. Ensuring a Safe Blood Supply.

There are many tests that are performed on blood to ensure its safety. For more information on blood and related topics, check out the links on the next page.

Lots More Information. How does a blood pressure gauge sphygmomanometer work? What is blood pressure?

In fish, the system has only one circuit, with the blood being pumped through the capillaries of the gills and on to the capillaries of the body tissues.

This is known as single cycle circulation. The heart of fish is, therefore, only a single pump consisting of two chambers.

In amphibians and most reptiles, a double circulatory system is used, but the heart is not always completely separated into two pumps. Amphibians have a three-chambered heart.

In reptiles, the ventricular septum of the heart is incomplete and the pulmonary artery is equipped with a sphincter muscle.

This allows a second possible route of blood flow. Instead of blood flowing through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, the sphincter may be contracted to divert this blood flow through the incomplete ventricular septum into the left ventricle and out through the aorta.

This means the blood flows from the capillaries to the heart and back to the capillaries instead of to the lungs. This process is useful to ectothermic cold-blooded animals in the regulation of their body temperature.

Birds, mammals, and crocodilians show complete separation of the heart into two pumps, for a total of four heart chambers; it is thought that the four-chambered heart of birds and crocodilians evolved independently from that of mammals.

Circulatory systems are absent in some animals, including flatworms. Their body cavity has no lining or enclosed fluid. Instead a muscular pharynx leads to an extensively branched digestive system that facilitates direct diffusion of nutrients to all cells.

The flatworm's dorso-ventrally flattened body shape also restricts the distance of any cell from the digestive system or the exterior of the organism.

Oxygen can diffuse from the surrounding water into the cells, and carbon dioxide can diffuse out. Consequently, every cell is able to obtain nutrients, water and oxygen without the need of a transport system.

Some animals, such as jellyfish , have more extensive branching from their gastrovascular cavity which functions as both a place of digestion and a form of circulation , this branching allows for bodily fluids to reach the outer layers, since the digestion begins in the inner layers.

The earliest known writings on the circulatory system are found in the Ebers Papyrus 16th century BCE , an ancient Egyptian medical papyrus containing over prescriptions and remedies, both physical and spiritual.

In the papyrus , it acknowledges the connection of the heart to the arteries. The Egyptians thought air came in through the mouth and into the lungs and heart.

From the heart, the air travelled to every member through the arteries. Although this concept of the circulatory system is only partially correct, it represents one of the earliest accounts of scientific thought.

In the 6th century BCE, the knowledge of circulation of vital fluids through the body was known to the Ayurvedic physician Sushruta in ancient India.

However their function was not properly understood then. Because blood pools in the veins after death, arteries look empty.

Ancient anatomists assumed they were filled with air and that they were for transport of air. The Greek physician , Herophilus , distinguished veins from arteries but thought that the pulse was a property of arteries themselves.

Greek anatomist Erasistratus observed that arteries that were cut during life bleed. He ascribed the fact to the phenomenon that air escaping from an artery is replaced with blood that entered by very small vessels between veins and arteries.

Thus he apparently postulated capillaries but with reversed flow of blood. In 2nd century AD Rome , the Greek physician Galen knew that blood vessels carried blood and identified venous dark red and arterial brighter and thinner blood, each with distinct and separate functions.

Growth and energy were derived from venous blood created in the liver from chyle, while arterial blood gave vitality by containing pneuma air and originated in the heart.

Blood flowed from both creating organs to all parts of the body where it was consumed and there was no return of blood to the heart or liver.

The heart did not pump blood around, the heart's motion sucked blood in during diastole and the blood moved by the pulsation of the arteries themselves.

Galen believed that the arterial blood was created by venous blood passing from the left ventricle to the right by passing through 'pores' in the interventricular septum, air passed from the lungs via the pulmonary artery to the left side of the heart.

As the arterial blood was created 'sooty' vapors were created and passed to the lungs also via the pulmonary artery to be exhaled.

In , The Canon of Medicine by the Persian physician , Avicenna , "erroneously accepted the Greek notion regarding the existence of a hole in the ventricular septum by which the blood traveled between the ventricles.

In , the Arabian physician , Ibn al-Nafis , became the first person to accurately describe the process of pulmonary circulation , for which he is sometimes considered the father of circulatory physiology.

The thick septum of the heart is not perforated and does not have visible pores as some people thought or invisible pores as Galen thought.

The blood from the right chamber must flow through the vena arteriosa pulmonary artery to the lungs, spread through its substances, be mingled there with air, pass through the arteria venosa pulmonary vein to reach the left chamber of the heart and there form the vital spirit In addition, Ibn al-Nafis had an insight into what would become a larger theory of the capillary circulation.

He stated that "there must be small communications or pores manafidh in Arabic between the pulmonary artery and vein," a prediction that preceded the discovery of the capillary system by more than years.

Michael Servetus was the first European to describe the function of pulmonary circulation, although his achievement was not widely recognized at the time, for a few reasons.

He firstly described it in the "Manuscript of Paris" [24] [25] near , but this work was never published. And later he published this description, but in a theological treatise, Christianismi Restitutio , not in a book on medicine.

Only three copies of the book survived but these remained hidden for decades, the rest were burned shortly after its publication in because of persecution of Servetus by religious authorities.

Better known discovery of pulmonary circulation was by Vesalius 's successor at Padua , Realdo Colombo , in Finally, the English physician William Harvey , a pupil of Hieronymus Fabricius who had earlier described the valves of the veins without recognizing their function , performed a sequence of experiments and published his Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus in , which "demonstrated that there had to be a direct connection between the venous and arterial systems throughout the body, and not just the lungs.

Most importantly, he argued that the beat of the heart produced a continuous circulation of blood through minute connections at the extremities of the body.

This is a conceptual leap that was quite different from Ibn al-Nafis' refinement of the anatomy and bloodflow in the heart and lungs.

However, Harvey was not able to identify the capillary system connecting arteries and veins; these were later discovered by Marcello Malpighi in Richards were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system.

In the s, Diana McSherry developed computer-based systems to create images of the circulatory system and heart without the need for surgery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Bloodstream. This article is about the animal circulatory system.

For plants, see Vascular tissue. Several terms redirect here. For the song by Ed Sheeran, see Bloodstream song.

For the album by Youves, see Cardio-Vascular. Organ system for circulating blood in animals. The human circulatory system simplified.

Red indicates oxygenated blood carried in arteries. Blue indicates deoxygenated blood carried in veins. Capillaries , which join the arteries and veins, and the lymphatic vessels are not shown.

Depiction of the heart, major veins and arteries constructed from body scans. See also: Arterial tree.

Main article: Vein. Main article: Portal vein. Main article: Heart. Main article: Coronary circulation. Main article: Pulmonary circulation.

Main article: Cerebral circulation. Main article: Lymphatic system. Main article: Fetal circulation. Main article: Heart development.

Main article: Aortic arches. Main article: Cardiovascular disease. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

March See also: Hemolymph. Medicine portal. Cancer Research UK. Retrieved April 13, PubMed Health. Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems.

Cengage Learning. Amirsys, Inc. Archived from the original on Guyton Textbook of Medical Physiology 10 ed.

Archived from the original on February 3, Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th ed. New York and London: Garland Science. Comprehensive Perinatal and Pediatric Respiratory Care.

Delmar Thomson Learning. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Developmental Biology. National Center for Science Education. October 24, Retrieved October 3, Retrieved International Journal of Cardiology.

Heart Views. Journal of Applied Physiology. Life and work of Michael Servetus ]. Nobel Foundation. American women of science since Santa Barbara, Calif.

Anatomy of the heart. Circulatory system Coronary circulation Coronary arteries. Arteries and veins. Nutrient artery Arteriole Metarteriole Elastic artery.

Lymphatic vessel Lymph Lymph capillary. Physiology of the cardiovascular system. Central venous Right atrial ventricular pulmonary artery wedge Left atrial ventricular Aortic.

Ventricular remodeling. Compliance Vascular resistance Pulse Perfusion. Pulse pressure Systolic Diastolic Mean arterial pressure Jugular venous pressure Portal venous pressure Critical closing pressure.

Baroreflex Kinin—kallikrein system Renin—angiotensin system Vasoconstrictors Vasodilators Autoregulation Myogenic mechanism Tubuloglomerular feedback Cerebral autoregulation Paraganglia Aortic body Carotid body Glomus cell.

Development of the circulatory system. Truncus arteriosus Bulbus cordis Primitive ventricle Primitive atrium Sinus venosus. In the Line of Fire. Try Again.

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Blood Work Stream

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